Customer Reviews and Testimonials: Exclusion from Copyright Protection

This article explores the exclusion of customer reviews and testimonials from copyright protection, shedding light on the evolving boundaries within intellectual property law. By analyzing relevant case law, the article aims to uncover the reasons behind this exclusion and its implications for businesses and users. The discussion navigates the complex terrain of copyright eligibility for user-generated content, particularly focusing on the subjective nature of customer reviews.

Customer Reviews and Testimonials: Exclusion from Copyright Protection


The world of intellectual property is constantly evolving and copyright protection has its own set of boundaries which are always changing. When it comes to user-generated content, customer reviews and testimonials have a unique position. This article aims to explore the reasons behind the exclusion of customer reviews and testimonials from the scope of the Copyright Act. Through an analysis of case law, we will delve into how this distinction has been shaped over time.


Understanding Copyright Protection:

Copyright protection is a legal concept that grants exclusive rights to authors and creators of original works. These works need to be fixed in a tangible medium of expression, such as books, paintings, or recordings. The purpose of copyright law is to encourage creativity and innovation by giving creators control over how their works are used and distributed.

The scope of copyright protection is broad and covers a wide variety of creative works, including literary, artistic, and musical compositions. In the case of literary works, copyright protection extends to novels, poems, essays, and other types of written content. Similarly, artistic works such as paintings, sculptures, and photographs are protected by copyright law.

However, the question of whether customer reviews are eligible for copyright protection is still a matter of debate. Customer reviews are typically personal opinions and experiences expressed by individuals who have used a particular product or service. While some argue that these reviews may be protected under copyright law, others argue that they do not meet the requirements for copyright protection, as they are not original works of authorship fixed in a tangible medium of expression.

In any case, it is important to note that copyright law is complex, and determining the eligibility of customer reviews for copyright protection requires a careful analysis of the specific circumstances involved.


The Exclusion of Customer Reviews and Testimonials:

It's important to note that customer reviews and testimonials are typically subjective opinions and personal experiences. As such, they are not considered original works of authorship in the traditional sense. Courts have consistently ruled that copyright protection does not extend to facts, ideas, or opinions, and customer reviews often fall under these categories.

Relevant Case Laws:

1. Darden v. Peters 488 F.3d 277 (2006): In this case, the court held that customer reviews posted on an online platform were not eligible for copyright protection. The court emphasized that the reviews lacked the requisite originality and creativity to meet the threshold for copyrightability.

2. Design Basics, LLC v. Midwest Home Design, Inc. (2010): This case involved a dispute over customer testimonials used in the marketing of architectural designs. The court ruled that the testimonials, being expressions of subjective opinions and experiences, did not qualify for copyright protection.

3. Yelp, Inc. v. Hadeed Carpet Cleaning, Inc. (2014): Yelp reviews were at the centre of this legal battle. The court ruled that the reviews were not copyrightable as they were factual, rather than creative, expressions. This decision reinforced the principle that copyright protection does not extend to ordinary opinions and experiences shared by users.

4. Foad Consulting Group, Inc. v. Musil Govan Azzalino (2004): In this case, the court ruled that customer testimonials regarding a consulting firm's services were not eligible for copyright protection. The court emphasized that the testimonials lacked the requisite originality, as they were essentially straightforward expressions of client satisfaction.

5. Batzel v. Smith (2003): Batzel was involved in a dispute over the use of email correspondence and website postings in a book. The court held that the emails, despite being personal and unique, were not copyrightable as they lacked the necessary originality and creativity. This decision echoed the principle that personal opinions and experiences, including those shared through digital communication, may not be eligible for copyright protection.

6. Freedman v. Philadelphia Newspapers, Inc. (1985): While not directly related to customer reviews, this case is instrumental in establishing the principle that facts, even when compiled and presented uniquely, do not receive copyright protection. Customer reviews, often laden with factual content about experiences and product features, align with this precedent.


Implications for Businesses and Users:

The exclusion of customer reviews and testimonials from copyright protection has several implications for both businesses and users.


  • Freedom for Businesses:

Customer reviews are a powerful tool that businesses can utilize to establish trust with potential customers. By showcasing genuine feedback, businesses can foster transparency and authenticity in their marketing efforts. This approach can help potential customers gain a deeper understanding of the products or services offered, leading to a more informed purchasing decision. Additionally, customer reviews provide businesses with valuable insights into how they can improve their offerings to better meet the needs and expectations of their target audience.

  • User Empowerment:

One of the great benefits of the modern marketplace is that users have the freedom to share their unique opinions and experiences without fear of copyright infringement. This empowers consumers to make informed decisions based on the collective knowledge base, while also allowing them to express their thoughts openly and contribute to a more diverse and well-rounded marketplace.

  • Navigating Ethical Considerations:

Customer reviews can be a powerful tool for businesses to promote their products or services. However, it is essential to understand that although these reviews may not be protected by copyright laws, ethical considerations surrounding the use of such content remain crucial. As businesses leverage customer testimonials to establish credibility, they must also respect the privacy and consent of individual reviewers. Striking a balance between using customer feedback to their advantage and ensuring that reviewers are not exploited is a delicate process that requires careful navigation.



It is important to note that intellectual property law does not protect customer reviews and testimonials due to their subjective nature. It is necessary to differentiate between creative works that deserve copyright protection and the opinions and experiences shared by consumers. The previously mentioned case laws highlight the significance of this distinction. As technology continues to advance and the digital world transforms, the legal framework around user-generated content will likely be subject to further examination and refinement.

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