Indian Trademark Law and Issues of Parallel Imports

In the vibrant and diverse marketplace of India, trademark law plays a pivotal role in protecting the interests of businesses and consumers alike. However, the issue of parallel imports presents a unique challenge within this legal framework. Parallel imports refer to the importation and sale of genuine products by unauthorized third parties, often from jurisdictions where the products are sold at lower prices. In this article, we delve into the intricacies of Indian trademark law and explore the complexities surrounding parallel imports, along with potential legal solutions to address these issues comprehensively.

Indian Trademark Law and Issues of Parallel Imports


At its core, Indian trademark law seeks to safeguard the distinctive features of brands and prevent consumer confusion regarding the origin and quality of goods and services. The primary legislation governing trademarks in India is the Trademarks Act, 1999, which provides for the registration, protection, and enforcement of trademarks.

Under the Trademarks Act, trademarks are protected as exclusive property rights, granting the registered owner the sole right to use the mark in connection with the goods or services for which it is registered. This exclusivity extends to the importation of goods bearing the trademark, ensuring that only authorized distributors and licensees can import and distribute the products in the Indian market.

Parallel Imports: Legal Complexities and Challenges:

Despite the strict enforcement of trademark rights in India, the issue of parallel imports presents significant challenges for brand owners and regulators. Parallel imports typically arise when genuine products are imported into India without the authorization of the trademark owner, often from jurisdictions where the products are sold at lower prices. While these products are genuine and authentic, their unauthorized importation raises legal and commercial concerns for brand owners.

One of the key challenges posed by parallel imports is the erosion of brand value and market exclusivity. Unauthorized importation of genuine products undermines the control of the trademark owner over the distribution and pricing of their goods, leading to brand dilution and loss of market share. Moreover, parallel imports can create confusion among consumers regarding the authenticity and quality of the products, potentially tarnishing the reputation of the brand.

Legal Framework for Addressing Parallel Imports:

In India, the legal framework for addressing parallel imports is governed by both domestic legislation and international agreements. The Trademarks Act, 1999, provides trademark owners with certain rights and remedies to combat parallel imports and protect their brand interests.

One of the primary mechanisms available to trademark owners is the principle of exhaustion of rights, also known as the doctrine of first sale. According to this principle, once a trademark owner sells a genuine product in the market, they exhaust their rights over that specific product. As a result, parallel imports of genuine products that have been legitimately sold by the trademark owner in another jurisdiction may not constitute trademark infringement under Indian law.

However, the Trademarks Act also contains provisions that allow trademark owners to take legal action against parallel imports in certain circumstances. Section 29 of the Act prohibits the use of a registered trademark by unauthorized parties in connection with goods or services without the consent of the trademark owner. Therefore, if parallel imports involve the unauthorized use of a registered trademark, the trademark owner may have grounds to pursue legal remedies against the importers.

In addition to domestic legislation, India is also a signatory to various international agreements that address the issue of parallel imports. The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement), administered by the World Trade Organization (WTO), sets out certain provisions related to the international exhaustion of rights and the protection of trademarks against unauthorized use.

Case Studies:

  1. Philips India Ltd. vs. Girnar Exports: In this case, Philips India Ltd. filed a lawsuit against Girnar Exports for importing genuine Philips-branded electric shavers without authorization. The court ruled in favor of Philips, stating that while the products were genuine, their unauthorized importation constituted trademark infringement under Section 29 of the Trademarks Act.
  2. Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd. vs. Kapil Wadhwa: Samsung filed a lawsuit against Kapil Wadhwa for importing genuine Samsung-branded mobile phones without authorization. The court held that while the products were genuine, their unauthorized importation violated Samsung's exclusive rights under the Trademarks Act.

3.      Cadbury India Limited vs. Vishnu Foods (India) Ltd.: Cadbury India Limited, a well-known chocolate manufacturer, filed a lawsuit against Vishnu Foods for importing genuine Cadbury chocolates from another country without proper authorization. Despite being genuine products, Cadbury argued that the unauthorized importation violated its exclusive trademark rights in India. The court ruled in favor of Cadbury, emphasizing the importance of protecting brand integrity and preventing consumer confusion.

These case studies highlight the diverse range of industries and brands affected by parallel imports in India. From consumer goods to technology products, parallel imports pose significant challenges for trademark owners in maintaining control over their brand image, distribution channels, and pricing strategies. As such, it is imperative for trademark owners to remain vigilant and proactive in enforcing their rights and collaborating with regulatory authorities to address the complexities of parallel imports effectively.


In conclusion, the issue of parallel imports poses complex challenges within the framework of Indian trademark law. While trademark owners have certain rights and remedies to protect their brand interests, the legal landscape surrounding parallel imports remains nuanced and subject to interpretation. As India continues to evolve as a global marketplace, it is essential for policymakers, regulators, and brand owners to collaborate in addressing the complexities of parallel imports and ensuring the effective enforcement of trademark rights. By fostering a robust legal framework and promoting greater awareness and compliance, India can mitigate the risks posed by parallel imports and safeguard the integrity of its trademark system for the benefit of businesses and consumers alike.